The Freeh Report stated that Spanier and Paterno, along with Curley and school vice president Gary Schultz, had known about allegations of child abuse on Sandusky's part as early as 1998, and were complicit in failing to disclose them (although Paterno did make a report to his superiors).
In so doing, Freeh stated that the most senior leaders at Penn State showed a "total disregard for the safety and welfare of Sandusky's child victims" for 14 years and "empowered" Jerry Sandusky to continue his abuse.
The Freeh Report had far-reaching outcomes for Penn State.
On July 23, 2012, the NCAA imposed a million fine, four-year postseason ban, scholarship reductions, and vacated all victories from 1998 to 2011.
These sanctions were considered to be among the most severe ever imposed on an NCAA member school.
NCAA President Mark Emmert stated that the sanctions were levied "not to be just punitive, but to make sure the university establishes an athletic culture and daily mindset in which football will never again be placed ahead of education, nurturing and protecting young people.", two other investigations are ongoing: a federal criminal probe by the local United States Attorney launched shortly after the discovery of Sandusky's crimes, and a separate probe from the Department of Education into whether Penn State responded to the incident properly and reported it in accordance with federal law.
The Penn State child sex abuse scandal was an incident in which Jerry Sandusky, a former assistant football coach for the Penn State Nittany Lions, was charged and convicted of multiple counts of sexual abuse of children.
Sandusky had located and groomed victims through his charity organization, The Second Mile.
Also implicated were several Penn State University officials, whose alleged actions were questioned in terms of whether they met ethical, moral, and legal obligations in reporting any suspected abuse.
The scandal broke in early November 2011 when Sandusky was indicted on 52 counts of child molestation.
Although Sandusky's abuse may have begun in the 1970s, he was charged with abuse that occurred between 19.
Additionally, three school officials (including school president Graham Spanier and athletic director Tim Curley) were charged with perjury, obstruction of justice, failure to report suspected child abuse, and related charges. The Penn State Board of Trustees terminated the contracts of Curley and of the longtime head football coach, Joe Paterno.
Jerry Sandusky's criminal trial began on June 11, 2012, at the Centre County Courthouse in Bellefonte, Pennsylvania.
The Board of Trustees commissioned an independent investigation by former FBI director Louis Freeh and his law firm.